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  • What are the special features of oak as a material?
    Abbreviation DIN EN 13556: QCXE

    Botanical nameQuercus spp.; Family Fagaceae

    Dissemination Europe; North America and others

    Short description
    All woods of the species-rich genus Quercus from the family Fagaceae can be described as oak. Due to the sometimes considerable differences in appearance, structure and technical properties, three assortments are distinguished (white oak, red oak, evergreen oak).

    The white oak includes the two common oak (Quercus robur) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea) native to Europe as well as a larger number of species found in North America and East Asia. The red oaks are native to North America. Among the numerous evergreen oaks, mainly found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, only the cork oak from southwestern Europe is of great economic importance.

    Depending on the location, age and species, sapwood is 2-8 cm wide, white to light grey (white oak) or light grey to pale pink (red oak). Heartwood light leather brown, very occasionally also with a reddish tone, in red oaks light reddish grey to reddish brown, rarely also light brown. Annual rings clearly marked by rings of large early wood pores, more or less distinct grain (tangential) or stripes (radial). Wood rays in two different sizes, very narrow and few widths (up to 2 mm) or high (up to several cm), the latter forming very conspicuous mirrors on radial surfaces. White oak and red oak can be distinguished relatively well on the basis of the late wood pore pattern and chemically.

    Overall character
    Wood clearly structured by ring porosity and large wood rays, whose light to medium brown representatives belong predominantly to the white oaks, the pink-brown ones predominantly to the red oaks.

    American white oak may have dark discolorations known as minerals.
    Bog oak is a wood which, under certain chemical conditions, turns partially or completely black in wet soils after long-term storage in the absence of oxygen, with only a slight reduction in strength.

    Surface treatment
    As a rule, oak woods can be stained, matted, glazed and painted by all means without problems. A special feature is the treatment of white oak with ammonia (smoking) to achieve a continuous brown to black-brown colour. However, white oak wood of different origins does not behave uniformly, so that appropriate preliminary tests are necessary.

    Medium-heavy woods, red oak with slightly higher strength values; narrowly grown (mild) wood can be worked well with all hand and machine tools; very hard wood with extremely wide annual rings makes working more difficult. White oaks such as red oaks can easily be processed into sliced veneer. Pre-drilling should be done for nails and screws because the wood is easy to split. Gluing is generally good with mildly grown wood, but can be problematic with fast-growing, hard qualities; strongly alkaline glues can lead to staining.

    Stability is satisfactory to good in straight grained and mild grades, and impaired in heavy grades by greater swelling and shrinkage. Oak lumber is generally extremely gentle and slow to dry, as the wood tends to crack and warp if dried too hard, and above all to discoloration.

    Natural durability (DIN-EN 350-2)
    Heartwood of white oak has good resistance to wood-destroying fungi, whereas that of red oak is only moderately durable and unprotected is not suitable for outdoor use.

    Areas of application
    Due to their similar strength properties, white oak and red oak can be used in the same way in the construction sector (interior finishing) as well as in the furnishing sector (living room, office and kitchen furniture, wall and ceiling coverings, solid wood and finished parquet flooring, wood block paving, stairs). For decorative purposes, the uniformly light-coloured wood of fine-grained white oak is rated highest. White oak is well suited for constructive outdoor applications, red oak less so because of its low fungal resistance. Among the special uses of white oak is the production of liquid containers (tubs, vats, barrels), which are particularly valued in the ageing of high-quality red wines as well as cognac and whisky. Red oak is not suitable for this purpose.
    For oak as a whole: Zerreiche (parquet flooring, furniture), evergreen oak (tools), sweet chestnut, berangan (construction wood for medium-duty use (e.g. roofs), interior fittings, furniture parts, panelling, veneer

    Contact with ferrous metals causes black-blue discoloration (iron-tanning agent reaction) in wet wood and fasteners can corrode.
    Oak - Technical properties
    Weight fresh 950-1 100 kg/m³
    Bulk density air-dry (12-15% u)0.65-0.76 g/cm³
    Compressive strength u12-1542-64 N/mm²
    Flexural strength u12-1560-110 N/mm²
    Modulus of elasticity (bending) u12-1510 500-14 500 N/mm²
    Hardness (JANKA) ⊥, converted5.1-10.7 kN
    Hardness (BRINELL) ⊥ to fiber u12-1523-42 N/mm²
    Differential shrinkage (radial)0.15-0.22 %
    Differential shrinkage (tangential)0.28-0.36 %pH value3.9 (acidic)
    Natural durability (DIN-EN 350-2): 2
  • What does the term "official site plan" mean?
    Directories kept by the cadastral offices (real estate offices) with information on the shape, location of the building, adjacent plots of land, etc.
  • What are the main features of the Lift & Slide opening method?
    Especially for balcony doors or patio doors, a so-called lift and slide system is often the best choice. It shines above all through its low threshold and thus barrier-free access. To open the door, it is lifted and then pushed aside. Please also pay attention to the noise level that is generated when pushing the door. Modern lift and slide doors float almost silently to the right or left thanks to an intelligent roller system in guide rails. In addition, Lift & Slide doors are optionally available with softclose system or gear damper. While the former ensures controlled, almost noiseless sliding back into the closed position, the latter guarantees above all easy operation - even with heavy doors and/or for children's hands.
  • What are the characteristics of the parallel slide-slide-tilt opening method?
    Parallel sliding/tilting doors combine the advantages of tilt and turn and lift and slide systems, so to speak. The various glass elements can not only be pushed to the left or right, but can also be tilted by means of the handle - as with a tilt and turn window or a classic balcony door. The only thing you have to do with the parallel slide and tilt variant is to make the barrier-free threshold. For functional reasons, thresholds of parallel slide and tilt doors are somewhat higher.
  • What distinguishes the turn-tilt opening method?
    The classic among the window opening types is certainly still the tilt and turn function. A 90° turn opens the window, a 180° turn tilts it. Of course, side-hung sashes to the right or to the left are possible - depending on your living situation or your preferences. Even the classic balcony doors, as they are installed in most apartments and houses, use this opening method. In special cases, such as kitchen windows, a combination of one or two turn/tilt sashes at the top with a fixed sash (cannot be opened) at the bottom is often the best solution. In this way, a large glass surface can be achieved without having to constantly put objects to one side when opening.
  • Which opening types are available?
    Differentiation of the opening direction and variants. We distinguish: Turn; Tilt; Turn/tilt;
  • What dies the term "order" mean exactly?
    Request or obligation to provide a service against payment, determined by type, quantity, place and time. The agent (contractor) undertakes to provide the services assigned to him in accordance with the contract, while the client undertakes to pay for the services.
  • What are outdoor facilities?
    All facilities outside the house. These are usually walls, fences, doors, gates and barriers. Furthermore, fencing, grounds maintenance, supply and sewage systems, roads and paths, stairs and green areas.
  • What is the function of the building owner?
    The owner is the initiator and carrier of the building project. It must also ensure the function of the "project manager client". In some projects, it consists of several builders, who must be coordinated.

Welcome to ENERsign® Price Configurator with U-Value window Calculation:

You don’t want to go through the trouble of obtaining various offers, but would like to find out the recommended prices and U-values for our high-quality ENERsign®primus window? Then try our price configurator, here you can put together your desired windows as you wish and try out different sizes and designs.

All you need is the desired dimensions and window types and you can configure immediately. The window price and U-value window will be adjusted automatically, so that you always have an overview and can compare directly.

We are uncompromising in the product we offer:
ENERsign®primus elements with at least triple glazing with a U-value glass of 0.52 W/m²K and a g-value of 53%. Other designs and special glasses are available on request.

Welcome to the ENERsign® U-Value window configurator:

The U-value window is also called heat transfer coefficient and according to the standard DIN EN 10077 it indicates the amount of thermal energy lost through a window to the outside.

The U-value window is calculated using the formula W/(m²K), i.e. watts per square metre and Kelvin. This value refers to the entire window and defines the amount of energy per unit of time that flows through an area of one square meter when the air temperature on both sides differs by one Kelvin. The lower this value is, the less energy or heat the window emits.

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