–  from A to Z

  • What do the terms facility management and building management mean?
    All services required for the operation, maintenance and use of a property. The main task of facility management is to improve flexibility of use, labour productivity, return on investment and value retention through the targeted planning, control and management of buildings, facilities, equipment and services.
  • What is meant by final energy demand?
    Amount of energy required to cover the annual heating energy demand, the domestic hot water demand and the electricity demand. The system limit of the consideration is the building envelope. Losses for conversion, storage and distribution are included in the final energy demand, but not in the useful energy.
  • What special features does the wood of the fir tree have as a material?
    Abbreviation DIN EN 13556: ABAL

    Botanical name: Abies alba, Abies spp., family Pinaceae

    Distribution: Central and Southern Europe (Abies alba); temperate climate zones of North America and East Asia (other species)

    Trade names: silver fir (DE); silver fir (GB); sapin pectiné (FR); abeto, pinabete (ES)

    Short description
    Species of the genus Abies are widespread in the northern hemisphere, most (37) in a region extending from Asia Minor east to Japan, including Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana), which plays an important role in the European market as a Christmas tree, and A. spectabilis (Himalayan fir). In North America (19), a number of mainly wood-used species grow, such as A. balsamea (Pacific silver fir), A. grandis (Grand fir), A. lasiocarpa (Sub-alpine fir) and A. procera (Noble fir). Among the few (7) species common in Europe, only the wood of the silver fir (A. alba) is regularly commercially exploited, mainly in southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland. After a period of low utilisation caused by the fir extinction in the 70s and 80s of the last century, the wood of the silver fir is currently experiencing a renaissance, especially in southern Germany, where it is used as planed wood for upmarket interior design. The technical properties of the various fir woods do not differ significantly and lie within the value ranges given below for silver fir.

    In the end of the stand, the logs are straight as a candle, extremely solid and knotless with a similarly high timber yield as spruce. In contrast, deforestation occurs in low locations and in open stands. Depending on age and location, tree heights between 25 and 50 m and diameters between 40 and 120 cm are achieved with knot-free shaft lengths of up to 20 m. Occasionally, heights of over 60 m are also achieved with chest height diameters of 150 to 200 cm.

    Colour and structure
    Sapwood and heartwood are not different in colour. The wood is matt reddish to yellowish white, often with a grey-violet tinge. The growth zones are clearly marked, the transition from early to late wood within a growth ring is gradual. On longitudinal surfaces the dark late wood bands cause conspicuous grain (tangential) or stripes (radial). In contrast to the similar wood of spruce (M 57), the resin channels are missing in fir, which is an advantage when considering volatile components in the wood (VOC) during interior finishing.

    Total character
    Straight grained, light-coloured and resin-free coniferous wood without heartwood colouring, with pronounced growth ring structure.

    tensile strength u12-15: 80-95(-120) N/mm²
    shear strength u12-15 : 6.2-8.4 N/mm²

    The processing of fresh as well as dry wood can be carried out quickly and gently by machine and hand with all tools, it is also easy to split, peel and knife, as long as the number and size of the branches is small. Qualities with particularly wide annual rings tend to have woolly surfaces and unclean holes. The screw and nail strength is still satisfactory. Gluing with commercially available glues as well as the usual surface treatments do not cause any problems.

    Shrinkage and swelling values are in the middle range and still give good stamina. Both natural and technical drying proceed rapidly with a generally low tendency to throwing and tearing.

    Natural durability (DIN-EN 350-2)
    The heartwood of the fir is only slightly resistant to attack by wood-destroying fungi and insects. For outdoor use, further (constructive) protective measures are therefore usually required.

    Areas of application
    Due to its good workability and relatively good technical properties, the wood of the fir tree can be used in many ways. It is offered as round timber, sawn timber, veneer as well as in the form of glued construction elements (solid structural timber, glulam) and, like spruce, can be used for load-bearing and other structures in industrial, sports facility, hydraulic and bridge construction. In interior finishing, fir wood is versatile and can be used for skeleton constructions, load-bearing walls and ceilings as well as wall and ceiling panelling, built-in furniture and general interior finishing; outdoors for facade panelling, balconies, windows and doors, fences and gates.

    The silver fir is known for frequent wet core formation with a moisture content of well over 200%, an accompanying phenomenon within the real core caused by bacteria. This leads to correspondingly longer drying times.

    Fir - Technical Properties
    Weight fresh800-1 000 kg/m³
    Weight air-dry450 kg/m³
    Weight dry-dry410 kg/m³
    Bulk density air-dry (12-15% u)0.41-0.45-0.52 g/cm³
    Compressive strength u12-15(26)35-45(-59) N/mm²
    Flexural strength u12-15(62-)70-80(-114) N/mm²
    Modulus of elasticity (bending) u12-156 200-10 800-14 500 N/mm²
    Hardness (JANKA) ⊥, converted1.8-2.8 kN
    Hardness (BRINELL) ⊥ to fiber u12-1513-16 N/mm²
    Differential shrinkage (radial)0.08-0.15-0.24
    Differential shrinkage (tangential)0.24-0.36-0.49 %
    pH value5.1-6.0
    Natural durability (DIN-EN 350-2)Class 4 (low durability)
  • What is behind the word "fitting"?
    Mechanism built into the sash for locking to the frame.

    The term fitting covers all mechanical components of a window which are mounted in the fitting groove of the window sash. As functional fittings they have the task of controlling the opening and closing function of the window. Functional fittings can also be provided with a child lock or offer protection against burglars. When the window is closed, a contact pressure is created which ensures that the window is sealed against rain and wind.
  • What is fixed glazing?
    Fixed glazing refers to glass elements built into the window frame. The windows cannot be opened, so that cleaning the outer panes is only possible from the outside. Fixed glazing is often used for stairwell windows, conservatories or facades.
  • What is float glass?
    The word float glass is derived from the manufacturing process of the same name. In this process, the still liquid glass flows (to float) on a tin bath, giving it absolutely plane-parallel surfaces. Float glass can be further processed as a basic product into toughened safety glass, laminated safety glass, coated glass and insulating glass.
  • What distinguishes folding blinds/Plisée?
    A plissée installation is a form of sun protection at the window that is similar to a roller blind. However, the fabric is not rolled up on a shaft like a roller blind, but is pre-folded (pleated) and is pushed together like an accordion to form a package. The terms pleated blind, pleated curtain or shortening pleated curtain are also commonly used for the systems. Pleated blinds are available in various degrees of transparency, colours, patterns, sizes and shapes. Even triangular or trapezoidal products are feasible within a certain range.
  • What does the term forend mean?
    Execution of a double-wing window. After opening both wings, a continuous opening is created. Double-wing windows with mullions, on the other hand, have a vertical division in the frame after opening of both wings.

    Windows with mullion convince in the open state with even more free space - here the window elements are not separated by a web. One of the two sashes can be turned and tilted with one handle, as with the transom, the other can only be turned and thus opened by means of a hand lever, but not tilted. Forend variants are only possible with double sash windows. Advantages with forend: large open area when open.
  • Which frame material does ENERsign® offer?
    The different frame materials each have their own unique character and offer attractive solutions for almost any construction project. The following frame materials are offered:

    - Aluminium
    - Wood
    - Plastics
    - Steel
    - Wood-Metal
    - Plastic-metal
  • What distinguishes a good front door?
    A front door must meet many requirements: In the best case, an entrance door offers a friendly reception, matches the style of the house and its inhabitants visually and is equipped with good thermal insulation.
  • What is a front-mounted roller shutter?
    Here the roller shutter box is attached to the outer facade and thus ensures that the entire window area is preserved. The only disadvantage is that it remains visible on the outside, but this can be prevented by integrating it into the facade insulation, thus ensuring a uniform external appearance. Mounting on the outside of the façade means that no cavities are formed in the building envelope, which can lead to thermal bridges and thus to the formation of condensation and mould.
  • What is the fRsi value?
    The temperature factor f*Rsi is a dimensionless quantity for the assessment of thermal bridges. The higher the temperature factor, the better the thermal insulation in this area. A small factor indicates a low room-side surface temperature.

    By entering the surface temperature, air temperature inside and outside, the temperature factor f*Rsi is determined. The result should be greater than 0.7, otherwise there is no longer any condensation on the surface and the risk of mould formation increases.

    In order to reduce the risk of mould formation through constructive measures, the temperature factor fRsi must meet the minimum requirement fRsi ≥ 0.70 at the most unfavourable point for all constructive, shape-related and material-related thermal bridges that deviate from DIN 4108 Supplement 2. The temperature factor can be used as a parameter for assessing the energy quality of window elements.
  • What are sash frames?
    Part of a window, a front door. Element to open. A distinction is made between inactive leaf, the leaf of a multileaf window or door intended to be moved after the main/going leaf, and main or going leaf - the leaf that opens first in multipart elements.

Welcome to ENERsign® Price Configurator with U-Value window Calculation:

You don’t want to go through the trouble of obtaining various offers, but would like to find out the recommended prices and U-values for our high-quality ENERsign®primus window? Then try our price configurator, here you can put together your desired windows as you wish and try out different sizes and designs.

All you need is the desired dimensions and window types and you can configure immediately. The window price and U-value window will be adjusted automatically, so that you always have an overview and can compare directly.

We are uncompromising in the product we offer:
ENERsign®primus elements with at least triple glazing with a U-value glass of 0.52 W/m²K and a g-value of 53%. Other designs and special glasses are available on request.

Welcome to the ENERsign® U-Value window configurator:

The U-value window is also called heat transfer coefficient and according to the standard DIN EN 10077 it indicates the amount of thermal energy lost through a window to the outside.

The U-value window is calculated using the formula W/(m²K), i.e. watts per square metre and Kelvin. This value refers to the entire window and defines the amount of energy per unit of time that flows through an area of one square meter when the air temperature on both sides differs by one Kelvin. The lower this value is, the less energy or heat the window emits.

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Gesamtpreis (inkl. 19% MwSt)
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Potentially avoided CO2 emissions over 30 years :
Potentially saved energy and CO2 costs over 30 years:
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