–  from A to Z

  • What are the special features of beech as a material?
    Abbreviation according to DIN EN 13556: FASY

    Botanical name: Fagus sylvatica, family Fagaceae - Fagoideae

    Distribution: Europe, Mediterranean area including North Africa and Middle East, temperate Asia

    Trade names: beech, copper beech, common beech (D), beech (USA, GB), hêtre (F), faggio (I), beuken (NL), haya (E), kaym (TR), rödbok (S), buk (CS, PL, RU), bökk (H)

    Beech - Description and characteristics

    Short description
    Beech is the most important deciduous tree species in Germany, accounting for about 15 % of the forest area. Newer silvicultural concepts, which take into account the characteristics of beech as an excellent mixed tree species, lead us to expect an increasing amount of beech wood in the future. The highest added value currently lies in the upper strength classes of the trunk wood, whose natural accompaniment is the red heartwood of beech. This facultative core, induced by external factors (especially branch breakage), develops under very individual conditions in the physiologically active tissue that beech possesses over the entire cross-section of the trunk until old age. The simple light beech is still preferred by the market at present, but thanks to targeted marketing, the demand for beech redheart is increasing, especially in the furniture and parquet sectors.

    Beech trees prefer to grow in the plains to lower altitudes of the low mountain ranges and require good soils. the trees reach heights of 25 to a maximum of 40 m with knotless shafts of up to 15 m and diameters of 50-80 cm, occasionally up to 1 m and more. The trunk, which grows in the stand, is mostly straight-edged, cylindrical and woody.

    Colour and structure
    The sapwood is grey-pink to yellowish and takes up the entire cross-section of the trunk. At the age (from approx. 80 years on) it mostly comes to the formation of a facultative redheart. This is characterized by a lively, multi-zone or cloudy gradated red-brown colouring. Growth zones are clearly recognizable by denser late wood with fewer vessels and form fine grain on the tangential surfaces. Wood rays are present in two different sizes and produce characteristic dark spindles on the tangential surfaces, which are visible as clear mirrors on the radial surfaces.

    Overall character
    Bright, homogeneously plain wood with a hard and dense surface characterized by characteristic wood rays. The wood of older trees often has a decorative red-brown colour core (red heartwood).

    Surface treatment
    The dry wood can be treated with all preparations according to any method, if the preparations are one that is adapted to the evenly dense surface. flowability or concentration. Beech wood can be adapted to almost any desired colour by staining. Where the natural colour or the colour intensified by steaming is to be expressed, clear and matt glossy agents are generally used for surface treatment, such as colourless glazes, matting, clear waxes, natural oils (e.g. linseed oil) or transparent varnishes.

    All wood assortments of beech can be easily and cleanly processed, due to the generally homogeneous structure and despite the high hardness. Exceptions to this are qualities with coarse fibre deviations, e.g. due to knots. Screwing and nailing requires pre-drilling. Beech is well suited for the production of sliced and rotary cut veneers. In order to maintain the respective colour characteristics, the use of UV-stable surface treatment agents is recommended. Beech is easy to bend after steaming. The sapwood area can be saturated very well, but the redheart is difficult to saturate.

    The strongly shrinking beech tends to warp and crack when drying. Stacking and drying should therefore be carried out with great care to avoid discoloration which would impair quality. Drying of the red-heart wood must also be carried out carefully due to the slower release of moisture.

    Natural durability (DIN-EN 350-2)
    The natural durability of beech, including the red heartwood, is poor in accordance with durability class 5 of DIN EN 350, as the core materials are not incrusted into the cell walls.

    Areas of application
    Due to the very good strength properties, the high hardness and the simple wood appearance of the non-cored beech, it is in demand for the uniform furniture and door industry as well as for stairs, floors and rotary cut veneers for plywood. The unique colouring of the red heartwood beech predestines it for the production of decorative furniture and interior furnishings with sophisticated design. Due to its low natural durability, either classic wood protection methods (e.g. sleeper wood) or new, innovative wood modification methods (e.g. thermal beech) are used for exterior applications.

    Red core formation must not be confused with quality-reducing wood discoloration reactions, such as the splash core or discoloration after felling (running-in, stick).

    Beech - Technical properties
    Weight fresh: 820-1 070-1 270 kg/m³
    Density air-dry: (12-15% u)0.54-0.72-0.91 g/cm³
    Compressive strength u12-1535-53-99 N/mm²
    Flexural strength u12-1563-105-210 N/mm²
    Modulus of elasticity (bending) u12-1510 000-16 000-18 000 N/mm²
    Hardness (JANKA) ⊥, converted4,97-7,10 kN
    Hardness (BRINELL) ⊥ to fiber u12-1528-40 N/mm²
    Differential shrinkage (radial)0.19-0.22 %
    Differential shrinkage (tangential)0.38-0.44 %
    pH value5.1-5.4
    Natural durability (DIN-EN 350-2)Class 5
  • What is a blind?
    Nowadays, a blind is understood to be a variable visual and sun protection. The external blind (not to be confused with the roller shutter) serves like the internal blind for privacy and light protection but protects more effectively against heating in summer. The slats of the blind are made of roll-formed aluminium, wood or - especially with inexpensive models - PVC. The most common slat widths are 16 mm, 25 mm, 35 mm and 50 mm. Venetian blinds are available with perforated slats, colours, patterns, sizes, shapes. Even triangular or trapezoidal systems are possible within a certain range.
  • How does the BlowerDoor test work?
    The BlowerDoor test, also known as the differential pressure method, can be used to reliably measure the air tightness of buildings. The measurement is carried out after the windows have been installed and the air tightness level has been completed. By means of a ventilator inserted into an opening in the outer shell (front door or window), an over- or underpressure of 50 Pascal is generated. The air exchange rate is calculated on the basis of the amount of air that is blown in or sucked out. If the air exchange rate is too high, any leaks must be found and repaired. The maximum permissible n50 value (= air exchange rate) is 0.6 h-1 .
  • Why do you need brackets and angles?
    If the window is located in the insulation zone of multi-layered wall systems, supporting structures, e.g. brackets etc., are necessary. The fixing itself must be dimensioned in such a way that the expected wind and payloads are absorbed and the dead weight can be carried at right angles to the window plane even when the sash is open.
  • What does the term building envelope mean?
    In energy-saving houses, the entire building envelope is excellently insulated.

    The building envelope consists of all components that separate the interior from the exterior. The interior should have a comfortable climate - the weather determines the exterior.
  • What is a building permit?
    Written decision of the responsible building supervisory authority to approve the building project. The building permit states that the building project applied for may be executed subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions. The conditions depend on the building regulations of the respective federal state. A building permit is limited in time and subject to a fee.

    Possibly necessary divisional examinations by water management or road construction authorities, exceptions or missing documents can delay the approvals.
  • What special features does the building permit have in development areas?
    Building permit procedures have been simplified in recent years. This helps to speed up the process if the building project is completely in accordance with the development plan and the technical requirements and if the development is secured. The building documents must be submitted to the municipalities.

    The building application must be submitted with all documents in triplicate. The associated construction plans must be prepared by an authorised person. The local authority checks the application in advance and forwards it to the competent licensing authority. After the examination, the permit can usually be granted after two to three months.
  • What is the purpose of a building specification?
    It explains the techniques and materials used in the realization of a construction project. The building description makes it easier to assess the construction of a building. It is an integral part of the application for a building permit.

    It is an essential element for many cutting clamps in connection with the project and its execution. With the plan bases, the verbalization of the chosen building materials and constructions finds its use as a performance description in connection with costs and deadlines.
  • What does burglary protection include?
    Under this generic term, all measures are summarized with which one protects oneself against burglaries or which make it more difficult for burglars to gain access to foreign rooms. With windows, increased protection against burglary can be achieved by various measures:

    - Burglar-resistant glazing
    - Burglar-resistant fittings
    - Gears on the window, which protect against break-in attempts

  • What do the terms facility management and building management mean?
    All services required for the operation, maintenance and use of a property. The main task of facility management is to improve flexibility of use, labour productivity, return on investment and value retention through the targeted planning, control and management of buildings, facilities, equipment and services.

Welcome to ENERsign® Price Configurator with U-Value window Calculation:

You don’t want to go through the trouble of obtaining various offers, but would like to find out the recommended prices and U-values for our high-quality ENERsign®primus window? Then try our price configurator, here you can put together your desired windows as you wish and try out different sizes and designs.

All you need is the desired dimensions and window types and you can configure immediately. The window price and U-value window will be adjusted automatically, so that you always have an overview and can compare directly.

We are uncompromising in the product we offer:
ENERsign®primus elements with at least triple glazing with a U-value glass of 0.52 W/m²K and a g-value of 53%. Other designs and special glasses are available on request.

Welcome to the ENERsign® U-Value window configurator:

The U-value window is also called heat transfer coefficient and according to the standard DIN EN 10077 it indicates the amount of thermal energy lost through a window to the outside.

The U-value window is calculated using the formula W/(m²K), i.e. watts per square metre and Kelvin. This value refers to the entire window and defines the amount of energy per unit of time that flows through an area of one square meter when the air temperature on both sides differs by one Kelvin. The lower this value is, the less energy or heat the window emits.

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Potentially avoided CO2 emissions over 30 years :
Potentially saved energy and CO2 costs over 30 years:
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